Of animals and men

Residents of certain urban areas can very well go through their day without ever running into an animal. The occasional fly or pigeon only reinforce the dramatic shift in balance between men and animals on Earth. Regardless, animals seem to have always hunted our imagination, and their presence in art is as unyielding as ever. They can be the subject of art, the raw material used to create it, serve as a repository for symbols, and even as an unsettling double.

1. Strangely human

From La Fontaine’s fables to Orwell’s Animal Farm, authors spoke about sensitive topics through animal protagonists. Similarly, because the church proscribed altering the human body, the first surgical dissections were performed on pigs, a fortunate choice since humans and pigs share numerous genetic features. From the Middle Ages up to the 18th century, animals have also been put on trial, and even excommunicated.

A weeping sow and her six piglets on trial in 1457 for having murdered and partially eaten a child in Lavegny, Suisse. 
Illustration from The book of days: a miscellany of popular antiquities in connection with the calendar, including anecdote, biography, & history, curiosities of literature and oddities of human life and character, 1863, Robert Chambers, J.B. Lippincott & Co., page 128

  • The fashionable ox

Caricature was flourishing in France after the 1789 Revolution. Morals and behaviors, politicians, and famous figures were subjects of satire. In 1797, a set of prints poked fun at the extravagant outfits adorned with feathers, abundant ribbons and jewelry, worn during that time by both women and men. Several versions of this fashionable ox print circulated and the image became so famous that it was used as the sign of a restaurant in  Paris. Although the establishment shut down in 1936, the sign representing a sculpted version of the ox can still be seen in Paris at 8, Valois street.

Louis Charles Ruotte, Le boeuf à la mode, etching, c. 1796, musée Carnavalet, Paris
Source: Paris Musées
Jean-Antoine Gros, Portrait of Joachim Murat, 1812, Louvre museum, Paris
Source: Wikipedia

  • The laughing cow

French illustrator Benjamin Rabier is the creator of the famous laughing cow appearing on cheese packages. He was already known as a children’s book illustrator when he was recruited for World War One. During the war he designed the label for the French army’s Fresh meat supplier (Ravitaillement en Viande Fraîche), a merry cow called « La Wachkyrie », a mischievous allusion to the German Valkyries. Soon after, the design was reused for a fox-trot score composed by a former soldier, who distributed it to all his fellow conscripts, including a cheese maker, Léon Bel.

Benjamin Rabier, La vache qui rit, print, 1st quarter of the 20th century, musée municipal La Roche-sur-Yon, France
Source: MCC
Benjamin Rabier, La Wachkyrie score, 1919, musée municipal La Roche-sur-Yon, France
Source: MCC

  • The oblivious rabbit

A figure printed in every Parisian commuter’s memory is a two-legged rabbit called Serge le Lapin (= Serge the Rabbit): a distracted rabbit teaching passagers how to safely use the subway. Initially created in 1977 by Anne Le Lagadec, the figure was modified in 1986 by Serge Maury, and it became so widespread that it took on the author’s name. Today, Serge le Lapin has its own Twitter account and his image is used to sell by-products or to convey militant or satirical messages about current events.

Source: RATP

2. Raw matter

Ancient American civilizations mastered the art of feathers, as witnessed by their spectacular headdresses and other ornemental fabrics. One of the highlights in Vienna’s Weltmuseum is a 16th century Aztec headdress, made of various types of colorful feathers. Around 25.000 BC people were already using ivory (tusks or teeth of certain animals) to sculpt figures, while during the Renaissance, cabinets of curiosities gathered unique and unusual species from Europe and other recently discovered territories. Nowadays, contemporary artist Damien Hirst uses real flies to create dark and haunting « paintings », or displays bisected animals preserved in formaldehyde.

Mexico, Aztec, early 16th century, feathers of the resplendent quetzal, cotinga, roseate spoonbill, squirrel cuckoo, kingfisher; wood, fibres, paper, cotton, leather, gold, gilded bronze, Weltmuseum, Vienna
Source: Weltmuseum, Vienna

  • The inflated buffalos

In Northern India, people used mussucks, inflated buffalo or bullock skins, as rafts. Samuel Bourne, a British photographer travelling through India in the 19th century is one of the artists who captured these surreal carcass-ballons, used by locals to transfer people and goods across strenuous mountain streams.

Samuel Bourne, Mussucks for Crossing the Beas River Below Bajoura, 1866, MET New York
Source: MET NY
Inflating bullock-skin boats for crossing the swift Himalayan river Sutlej, published by Underwood & Underwood, 1903, Library of Congress, Washington

  • The incomplete rhinos

It is widely known that rhinoceros are an endangered species because poachers hunt them down for their horns. Used in traditional medicine (especially in Asia) and believed to have all types of ludicrous therapeutic properties, horns are as expensive as gold on the black market. It’s no surprise that not even rhinos preserved in museums have been spared. In Great Britain, France, and Austria, museums have been targeted by poachers and as a result some institutions have taken drastic measures to ward off the danger. The museum of natural history in Paris replaced rhinoceros horns with fake ones, while in Amsterdam, curators decided to cover them with paint, rendering them useless, as this article illustrates.

Cup in the shape of a magnolia blossom, 18th century, China, rhinoceros horn, MET New York
Source: MET NY

  • The 500 sheep

During the 2nd century AD, in the ancient Greek city of Pergamon, an invention transformed the way text was transmitted. Parchment, treated animal skin, replaced the plant-based Egyptian papyrus, and thus the codex took the place of scrolls. Scraped and treated sheep, cow or goat skin offers a foldable surface, that can hold text on both sides. The earliest complete Latin Bible, the Codex Amiatinus, produced around 700 in England and weighing about 34 kilograms, required more than 500 sheep skins.

3. Furry portraits

Some of the earliest murals found in caves represent animals. Since then, art history has seen the development of animal art, with several artists distinguishing themselves as masters of the genre.

A playful representation of a cat arching its back.
Pierre Bonnard, The White Cat, 1894, musée d’Orsay, Paris
Source: MCC

  • The plucked ducks

Contrary to common belief, the ancient Egyptians did not worship animals, but rather considered them manifestations of the divine. The behavior of an animal served as a means to explain certain traits of Egyptian gods. This is consistent with the fact that ancient Egypt was an agrarian society, and people lived in close proximity to animals. So much so that more than a quarter of all hieroglyphs represent animals. Birds were highly appreciated for their nutritional value, and Egyptians were especially fond of duck. Some funerary offerings take the form of sculpted ducks, already plucked and ready to be cooked, insuring the eternal meal of the dead.

Limestone sculpture representing a trussed duck, Saqqara, 2700-2200 BC, Louvre museum, Paris
Alabaster trussed geese, Dara, 2200-2106 BC, Louvre museum, Paris

  • The beached whale

Beached whales are not a contemporary phenomenon, as this 17th century engraving demonstrates. It represents a whale on a Dutch beach, surrounded by curious crowds. The Count Ernst Casimir of Nassau-Dietz is seen in the center, protecting his nose with a handkerchief. The presence of the artist on the left hand side, busy drawing the animal, is a device guaranteeing the accuracy of the representation. However, the engraving is not a mere naturalistic or scientific representation of an animal. This unexpected beaching, accurately registered by historians on the 19th of December 1601, paired with the sun eclipse chronicled only a week later (illustrated in the upper frame), were seen as a bad omen in the context of the ongoing war between the United Provinces of the Netherlands and Spain.

Jan Saenredam, engraving, 1602, published by Johannes Janssonius, British Museum

  • The celebrity giraffe

As commercial routes expanded during the 18th century, several exotic animals made it to Europe, triggering massive interest and leaving traces in art and literature. Certain animals became celebrities, like Zarafa, the giraffe offered by Muhammad Ali of Egypt to the French king Charles X in 1826. Two other giraffes were offered to George IV of Great Britain and to the Austrian emperor Francis II, but only Zarafa lived long enough to become famous. She arrived by boat to Marseilles, and travelled by foot to Paris, attracting crowds in every city it transited. Her figure appears in paintings, engravings, ceramics and even in fashion. Giraffe-yellow became a popular color, women wore hairstyles « à la girafe » and men wore a giraffe knot on their tie. A taxidermied Zarafa can be seen at the natural history museum in La Rochelle, France.

The Giraffe, wood engraving, edited by Jean-Baptiste Castiaux, printed by Simon-François Blocquel, 1827-1837, MUCEM Marseilles
Emile Marco de Saint-Hilaire, Honoré de Balzac, L’art de mettre sa cravate, de mille et une manières, enseigné et démontré en dix-huit lecons, précédé de l’histoire de la cravate, depuis son origine jusqu’a ce jour ; de considérations sur l’usage des cols, de la cravate noire et des foulards ; ouvrage indispensable a tous les fashionables, 1829
Source: Sammlung Online
Natural history museum in La Rochelle, France
Source: Wikipedia

4. A colorful bestiary 

On a page of an English medieval manuscript, two lions are represented sleeping with their eyes open. It is not a On a page of an English medieval manuscript, two lions are represented sleeping with their eyes open. It is not a scientific study of this mammal, but a symbolic image carrying a religious message. Just like in the case of the lion, the human nature of Christ on the Cross was asleep, while his divine nature was watching over. This type of bestiary, an illustrated animal treaty, is very popular among scholars at the end of the 12th century in Europe. Richly decorated, these manuscripts present the characteristics of animals and sometimes plants, from a religious perspective. Across art history, animals are more than they might seem.

Manuscript MS Bodley 602, fol. 001v, Bodleian Library, Oxford

  • The unexpected snail

Francesco del Cossa’s representation of the Annunciation is a typical Renaissance rendering of the biblical subject, with a twist : a rather sizable snail is crossing the bottom of the scene. There are multiple interpretations of this presence : the snail is a common figure in funerary scenes, since it emerges from its shell the same way the dead will rise for the Last Jugement. The future birth of Christ, revealed by the painting, is a guarantee that the virtuous will be spared. At the same time, the slowness of the snail could be a nod to a subject matter consuming the exegetes during the Renaissance : the unbearably long span of time between the fall of Adam and Eve and the coming of Christ. Even more subtly, the snail is the picture perfect animal for the blind look, since gastropods have notoriously bad vision. Looking at this perfect rendering of a perspective box, a plausible interior and characters unravel before our eyes, but its message and significance are essentially hidden to the eye. 

Francesco Del Cossa, The Annunciation, c. 1470, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresde
Source: Wikipedia

  • The racy lioness

The symbol of the Catalan city of Girona, close to Barcelona, is a statue of a lioness climbing a column. The 12th century statue situated in the old part of the town is said to protect travelers. Any local leaving on a trip, or visitor preparing their voyage back home, should kiss the lioness’ derrière for good luck. Nonetheless, the enthusiasm for its apotropaic qualities has proved to be highly perilous.

  • The eerie bug

Casa Calvet in Barcelona is one of Gaudi’s more tame creations, since the architect had to work with the distinctive features of the terrain and the requirements of the future owner. However, animal and mineral shapes and textures associated with his style, and with Art Nouveau in general, are abundantly present. At the Calvet house, the door-knocker consists of an elaborate mobile handle, crushing a giant bug.

Door-knocker, Casa Calvet, Barcelona
Source: Pinterest

  • The proud rooster

A national symbol of France, the rooster appears on everything from the gilded gates leading to the President’s Parisian palace, to the t-shirts worn by the national football team. Its association with the French is very old: the latin word gallus translates as « Gauls » (the ancestors of the French) as well as « cock » or « rooster ». A bronze rooster topped the spire of Notre-Dame de Paris, before it completely collapsed during the 2019 fire. The sculpture served as a lightning rod, but it also contained holy relics from the Holy Crown, Saint Denis of Paris, and Saint Genevieve. After the fire, the sculpture was remarkably found, and is expected to be restored and re-installed.

Source: Wikipedia
The chief architect of the Centre des Monuments Nationaux, Philippe Villeneuve, with the retrieved rooster.

Granite, lettuce and universal disorder

From the infamous Black Square to a shark preserved in formaldehyde, modern and contemporary art often confuses, amuses, or annoys. Here is an example on why it (sometimes) deserves a second look.

Untitled (Sculpture That Eats), Giovanni Anselmo, 1968, Centre Pompidou, Paris
Source: Centre Pompidou

This is Giovanni Anselmo’s Untitled (Sculpture That Eats). It consists of two blocks of granite, separated by a head of lettuce, all three tied together with a copper wire. The object exists as long as the salad insures the width of the structure. The more time passes and the salad disintegrates, crushed between the two slabs of granite, the more likely it is for the object to fall apart. Anselmo’s structures are often organized by energy, close to breaking point.

Torsions, Giovanni Anselmo, 1968, MOMA NY
Source: MOMA NY
A piece of leather, trapped on one end in a block of cement, is twisted around a wooden stick. The suspended movement is also a form of suspended time.

The Sculpture that eats takes the form of a mouth, demanding countless heads of lettuce in order for the object to remain on display. The contrast between the granite, usually associated with funeral art, and the vitality of green lettuce, is hinting to the fragility of life. The lettuce is the frailest part of the structure, but it is also what keeps it together. Anselmo is fascinated by granite and anthracite as fossilized remains of early organisms. In Trecento milioni di anni, he reminds us that a piece of anthracite was once organic matter, vegetal or animal, before being submerged under the earth and hidden away from light. Adding a lamp to his installation is a way of undoing these millions of years of darkness (hence the name).

Trecento milioni di anni, Giovanni Anselmo, 1969, musée d’Art modern de la Ville de Paris
Source: MAMVP
A lamp is fixed on a piece of anthracite, constantly illuminating it while the object is on display.

The Italian artist is interested in essential elements: time, space, gravity and energy. The lettuce in our case illustrates the concept of entropy, popularly described as a measure of disorder. To understand entropy, imagine two pieces of metal that touch each other, one being hot and the other one cold. In time, the two will inevitably reach an even, lukewarm temperature. The metals will never exchange temperatures, the hot one becoming cold, or vice versa. Therefore, the (thermal) energy concentrated into the two pieces of metal will always spread out, disperse, just like ice cubes will eventually melt in a glass of soda. And since this is an inevitable process, occurring in all aspects of life, all of the energy clumped together in the universe will eventually disperse.

Venus of the Rags 1967, 1974 Michelangelo Pistoletto born 1933 Purchased with assistance from Tate International Council 2006 http://www.tate.org.uk/art/work/T12200

Giovanni Anselmo is a prominent figure of Arte Povera. The name was initially used for a new, experimental theatre, around 1967, promoting a direct exchange between the actor and the spectator, as a reaction against the multi-sensory qualities of theater in general. For artists, this translated into the use of primal forms, present in all aspects of life, experienced directly and not mediated through representation, ideology or codified languages. Arte Povera was a reaction of Italian contemporary art against the supremacy of the American art market, and against the consumer society. It was a new focus on the artistic gesture, rather than the art object, and a refusal of heavy equipment or abundant resources that tie the artist to cultural institutions.

Liberty igniting the World

In June 1789…

… the members of the French Third Estate assembled, vowing to obtain a constitution, thus launching the French Revolution. When the representative of the crown tried to break up the assembly, the Count of Mirabeau presumably retaliated with the famous words: “Go tell your master that we are here by the will of the people, and will leave only by the force of bayonets!”

Léon Cogniet, Scene of July 1830, musée des beaux-arts d’Orléans, 1830
The white royal flag morphing into the republican Tricolore.
Source: Wikipedia

Anne-Louis Girodet, Jean-Baptiste Belley, 1798, château de Versailles
This first representation of a Black legislator in official attire is a reminder that one of the results of the 1789 Revolution was the abolition of slavery in all French territories.
Source: Wikipedia

In January 1943 …

… nineteen-year-old Ukrainian Ulyana Gromova was executed by the Nazis and thrown into a pit, together with fellow members of the resistance in her village. Her story and that of the Young Guard, an anti-fascist organization set up by the youth division of the Communist Party, is difficult to untangle from the web of Soviet propaganda that was deployed after the war.

Portrait of Ulyana Matveevna Gromova
Source: Wikipedia

Nevertheless, she was an adolescent who stayed behind when the rest of her village was evacuated, so that she could take care of her sick mother. She took part in organizing a group of young people animated by the desire to do whatever they could to stop or slow down the invaders: they distributed leaflets, stole medicine, etc. As a final act of disobedience, on the eve of the 25th anniversary of the 1917 Revolution, they hoisted the Soviet flag above a local mine.

The Soviet and the German pavilions facing each other at the 1937 International Exposition of Art and Technology in Modern Life in Paris.
Source: Sylvain Ageorges, Sur les traces des Expositions universelles, Paris 1855-1937, Parigramme, Paris 2006

Dennis Adams, Patriot, 2002, photo from the Airborne series
A mundane red plastic bag is in reality a sinister sign of a catastrophe: Dennis Adams photographs debris floating around after the collapse of the World Trade Center.
Source: http://http://www.cnap.fr/

In March 2011 …

… the Rome Opera played Verdi’s Nabucco to celebrate 150 years of Italian independence. It is a story taking place during the Babylonian exile of the Jews, whose Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves, Va Pensiero (Go, thought), has since become a second Italian anthem. It was first set on stage in 1842, when Italians, occupied by the Austrians, could identify with the oppressed Jews.

A still from Maria Kourkouta’s Idomeni, 14th of March 2016, video, 17’48”
Maria Kourkouta’s video is a quiet march of refugees crossing the border between Greece and Macedonia during the European migrant crisis.
Source: soulevements.jeudepaume.org

The 2011 performance was extraordinarily stopped by the director Riccardo Muti after the famous aria, and he subsequently expressed his concern that the lyrics “O, my homeland, so beautiful and lost!” could soon ring too familiar during a time when funds for culture were being cut. He then turned his back to the stage and directed an emotional encore, sung this time by the entire hall.

After the 2005 destruction of an artists’ village in Beijing, Liu Bolin started a series in which he fades into the background, hiding in plain sight, to protest the lack of protection for Chinese artists.
Liu Bolin, Hiding in the city
Source: Wikipedia

What you (probably) don’t know about 3 masterpieces

There are some works of art that everybody can identify and we all know a few stories more or less true about them. Just like celebrities, they have a luring effect on people, and they usually get looked at through the lenses of a camera.

Van Gogh’s dying sunflowers

Van Gogh’s Sunflowers, with their dazzling yellows, are some of his most recognizable paintings. Unsurprisingly, Paul Gauguin’s portrait of the artist in Arles is showing him painting sunflowers.

Paul Gauguin, The Painter of Sunflowers, 1888, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam
Source: Wikipedia

Van Gogh’s series on these flowers begins in August 1888, at a time when he was enthusiastic about organizing a colony of artists in Arles, in the south of France, inviting fellow painters Gauguin, Emile Bernard and others. He conceived a villa in which every object, from furniture to paintings, is a part of a total work of art. His sunflower paintings were supposed to decorate Gauguin’s room.

Vincent van Gogh, Sunflowers, 1888, National Gallery, London
Source: Wikipedia

Around the same time, Van Gogh’s beliefs take a turn towards a pantheist view of the world. His father was a pastor and he had been a passionate, even zealous, Protestant missionary in Belgium, but he replaces dogma with a vision of the divine manifesting itself in every part of Nature. He read Walt Whitman and he spoke about the importance of joy: that of the artist working, and that of the spectator in front a work of art meant to be as comforting as music.

Van Gogh paints his sunflowers as they are drying out. In fact, most of the flowers in the London National Galley version are dead. The artist was interested in representing the traces left by the passage of time on objects and beings. At the same time, Van Gogh is Dutch, and flower painting has been a staple of Dutch painting for centuries.

Ambrosius Bosschaert the Elder, Bouquet of Flowers in a Glass Vase, 1621, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC
Source: Wikipedia

During the 17th century, the golden age of Dutch painting, such realistic representations of flowers served as memento mori, a reminder of our mortality: no matter how blossoming your life might feel, you have to prepare for the inevitable demise. But this shouldn’t leave us engulfed in despair, since the sunflowers have already formed their seeds which will continue the cycle of life.

The veiled Statue of Liberty

Our story of the statue begins with Napoleon’s Egyptian Campaign (1798-1801). Meant to block Britain’s access to India while reinforcing the young French Republic, the campaign included scientists and artists, documenting and exploring the surroundings. This event created the science Egyptology and lead to an enduring Egyptomania, reflected in Verdi’s Aida as well as the Washington Monument.

In 1855, Auguste Bartholdi, the designer of the “Liberty Enlightening the World”, met Ferdinand de Lesseps, the developer of the Suez Canal, on the boat taking them to Egypt. The sculptor was fascinated by the country and he spends his time in Northern Africa drawing and photographing the locals and the monuments. Eventually, some years later, he begins working on a monumental statue, playing the role of a lighthouse for the Suez Canal, in the spirit of the Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. His drawings and terracotta models show a Fellah woman, an agricultural laborer in the Middle East and North Africa, wearing a veil and holding a lantern or a torch.


Auguste Bartholdi, terracotta figures and drawing, 1867-1869, musée Bartholdi, Colmar

Despite the favorable reception, the monument was finally dropped, due at least in part to the excessive expenses generated by the construction of the Canal, inaugurated in 1869. However, Bartholdi never abandoned the project, and when his journeys took him to America, the Fellah woman transformed into the famous figure lighting the arrival into the New World.

Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi, metal framework by Gustave Eiffel, Liberty Enlightening the World, 1886, New York
Source: Wikipedia

Mona Lisa’s layers

The most famous Renaissance masterpiece arrived in France when Da Vinci fled Italy, welcomed by the king Francis I, who bought the painting for the Palace of Fontainebleau, near Paris. Just like any seasoned celebrity, the Mona Lisa is surrounded by countless anecdotes and rumors. Some of the most outrageous concern its disappearance from the Louvre in 1911, when the painting was stolen by an Italian worker who wished to return it to its homeland.

« The Louvre lost La Joconde », article published in Excelsior on the 23rd of August 1911
Source: Gallica

Achille Beltrame, Theft of the Mona Lisa, illustration for La Domenica del Corriere, 3rd-10th September 1911
Source: Getty Images

The Mona Lisa is almost intrinsic to the Louvre, and every one of its movements has been eventful. After Fontainebleau, it was displayed in Versailles, the main royal residence, and because of the 1789 Revolution and the fall of the Monarchy, the royal art collections moved to the newly created museum in the Louvre.

Samuel Morse, The Gallery of the Louvre, 1831-1833, Terra Foundation for American Art, Chicago
Source: Wikipedia

After a short stay in Napoleon’s chamber in the Tuileries Palace, next to the Louvre, the Mona Lisa barely left the museum, except for the two World Wars, when it was hidden for protection. The two occasions when the painting left France to be exhibited have been memorable: in 1963, Jacqueline Kennedy convinced the French to borrow it for an exhibition at the MET in New York, where the United States Coast Guard escorted its ship entering the harbor. Finally, in 1974, the Tokyo National Museum and Moscow’s Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts broke visitor records thanks to its short presence.


It is easy to get starstruck in front of her smile, but this shouldn’t stop you from noticing some of the details that make it a masterpiece. Painted in Leonardo’s renowned sfumato, the portrait is a superposition of very thin layers of paint, each of them having to dry before the next one can be applied. The result is a seamless surface, particularly striking around Mona Lisa’s forehead, where a delicate veil frames her face and covers her hair. Leonardo was also interested in the aerial perspective, meaning that air is not transparent in his pictures: contours are blurred, and objects get a bluish hue as we move farther into the background.

Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, c. 1503-1506, The Louvre Museum, Paris
Source: Wikipedia

What’s in a word

Every language has its share of words hiding elaborate histories and quirky details about certain civilizations. Here are just a few, whose story deserves to be told:


Literally bad star in ancient Greek, this word is a reminder that before the development of astronomy, people used to believe that comets predicted catastrophes and other unfortunate events. The impressive 11th century Bayeux Tapestry, illustrating the Norman conquest of England and the adventures of William the Conqueror, includes a representation of Halley’s Comet. Returning to Earth’s vicinity about every 75 years, the embroidered comet is looming here above a scene depicting Harold’s coronation. The message is straightforward: this reign will end in tragedy.

Bayeux Tapestry, embroidery in wool thread on linen cloth, 11th century, Musée de la Tapisserie de Bayeux in Bayeux, Normandy, France
Photo: Wikipedia


Spring feeling in German, and one of those words impossible to translate. Just like Jean-François Millet’s painting, this word captures that moment when spring is finally chasing winter and its gloomy clouds away, while the best is yet to come. The painting is also hinting to two styles of painting: realist landscape as it was conceived by the Barbizon school and the impressionistic recording of a fleeting moment in time, in fresh colors and with a particular interest in light.

Millet, Spring
Jean-François Millet, Spring, 1868-1873, musée d’Orsay, Paris
Photo: http://www.wga.hu


The word derives from the god Pan, overlooking fertility and nature, protector of the shepherds. One legend attributes to Pan the sounds heard by night on mountains and valleys and so he was the cause of any sudden and groundless fear. This god also inspired Arthur Machen’s The Great God Pan (1894), a masterpiece of horror according to Stephen King himself.

Pan and Daphne, marble, Roman copy after a Greek original by Heliodoros III-II BC, Museo archeologico nazionale di Napoli
Photo: Wikipedia


Effortless elegance in Italian. As its creator, Baldassare Castiglione, explains in his 16th century The Book of the Courtier, sprezzatura is the art of never trying too hard, the ostentatious negligence of those who feel very skilled at doing something. This concept quickly transferred to painting referring to an artist’s “painterly”, impastoed brushwork, that dissimulated effort, for example in Venetian painting.

Titian, The Death of Actaeon, 1559–1575, National Gallery, London
Photo: Wikipedia


These are technically two words, both of them meaning second in French. The catch is that one of them, second, is the second of two, while the other, deuxième, is the second of many. It might seem as a pointless distinction, but calling WW2 la Seconde Guerre mondiale not only means you are talking about the second of two world wars, but it also implies that there will never be a third.

Shomei-Tomatsu Melted Bottle, Nagasaki, 1961
Shomei Tomatsu, Beer Bottle After the Atomic Bomb Explosion, gelatin silver print, 1961, Moma, New York
Photo: Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY


These two Russian words translate to truth [istina/pravda]. The first refers to moral values, while the second is our more mundane truth, dealing with reality. The prominent Russian painter Nikolay Nikolayevich Ge illustrates the first concept by focusing on one of the key episodes of the Passion of Christ. The son of God is facing Pontius Pilate and a fateful dialogue ensues:

The reason I was born and came into the world is to testify to the truth. Everyone on the side of truth listens to me.

What is truth?” retorted Pilate.

Ge Nikolay Nikolayevich, What is truth?, 1890, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow
Photo: Wikipedia


Looking closely, observing and contemplating the stars used to be an essential part of navigating, which is how we got the verb consider: con (with) + sidus/sidera (star/stars). Meaning that before offering someone our close attention, we should remember that we are in a way raising them all the way to the stars.

Vincent van Gogh, The Starry Night, 1889, MOMA New York
Photo: Wikipedia

See your ancestors in color

In 1909, a French philanthropist banker created The Archives of the Planet, a project designed to record and share the diversity of the world. Between 1909 and 1931, Albert Kahn financed missions around the globe, producing more than 72.000 photographs, as well as over 100 hours of video footage. A firm pacifist, he tried to enlighten decision-makers in order to achieve and maintain peace.


Faces from the past

His collection takes the viewer from the western Canadian coast to Japan, and from Rio de Janeiro to Benin, in Africa. With the help of geographer Jean Brunhes, Khan’s project integrated the principles of human geography, a branch of geography studying the dynamics between human cultures and their environment.

Indes, Peshawar, Une rue
Stéphane Passet, Children on a street, January 1917, Peshawar, Pakistan (A 4 419)

Hollande, Volendam, Groupe de trois jeunes filles en Costume type
Stéphane Passet, Three young girls, 31st of August 1929, Volendam, The Netherlands (A 61 916 S)

Ourga, Femme Mongole
Stéphane Passet, Mongolian married Woman, 23rd of July 1913, Mongolia (A 3 962)

A changing world

Kahn’s photo-campaigns unfold during a time of dramatic changes, from relative peace to world war, and from rural to mass industrialization. This is also when the Lumière brothers invented the autochrome, an early color photography process. This new technique captured Khan’s attention, to the point of establishing one of the largest autochrome collections in the world.

Autriche Hongrie, La boutique du libraire juif : le nom du libraire est : J. M. Belf Rabensteig. 3.
Auguste Léon, Jewish book store, 23rd of April 1913, Vienna, Austria (A 1 762)

Albert Khan’s intention was to capture disruptive events, transcending immediate reality. And his life was rich in such episodes from the beginning : he was born in 1860 in Alsace, France, a territory occupied by the Germans in 1871 and reconquered by the French after WW1. He died in November 1940, in Nazi-occupied Paris, not long after having declared himself a Jew during a census run by the new regime.

France, Moreuil, Hôpital d'évacuation de Moreuil. Blessures produites par les éclats d'obus
Stéphane Passet, Moreuil hospital, shell wounds, 1st of August 1916, Moreuil, France (A 7 786)

France, Verdun, Ruines, Vue prise vers le Théâtre de la Place de la Magdeleine
Georges Chevalier, Verdun, May 9th 1919, France (A 16 093)

Angleterre, Londres, Ocford Street : la Maison Waringd
Georges Chevalier, Verdun, May 9th 1919, France (A 16 093)

A very select face-book

His estate in Boulogne, on the outskirts of Paris, as well as his villa in Cap-Martin, on the French Riviera, hosted many of his high-society friends. Luckily for us, Kahn had a habit of placing his guests, no matter how select, in front of a camera, thus collecting a series of remarkable portraits.

France, Boulogne, Rabindranâth Tagore - Mme Tagore - Mme ...
Georges Chevalier, Rabindranâth Tagore, Indian poet, Nobel prize winner, July 26th 1926, Boulogne, France (A 48 581)

France, Boulogne, Portraits, Prince Roland Bonaparte
Auguste Léon, The prince Roland Bonaparte, great-nephew of Napoleon I, September 9th 1921, Boulogne, France (A 28 377)

Aucune légende d'époque
Auguste Léon, The wife and daughter of the German ambassador in France, c.1914, Cap-Martin, France (C 1 398 X)

France, Boulogne, Portraits, S.M. Ferdinand, Roi de Roumanie
Georges Chevalier, Romanian king Ferdinand I, April 16th 1924, Boulogne, France (A 40 693 X)

Albet Kahn’s collection, as well as his gardens, are a part of the Albert-Kahn Museum in Boulogne-Billancourt, France. All the photographs are credited to the museum.

Peru : the land of stunning ceramics

Huaco portrait, Moche, 300-400 AD, Museo Huacas del Valle de Moche, Trujillo, Peru
Photo: Connaissance des arts

Peruvian ceramics are an amazing window into a very distant past. They show tattooed faces, ruthless traditions and unusual objects – all otherwise quite inaccessible since the people of the Andean region had no writing system before the arrival of the Europeans.

Most of the times, these objects have been found in tombs, but besides information concerning the buried individual, they offer an insight into the way these civilizations understood the universe.


Anthropomorphic vase, Inca, 1450 – 1532, Musée du Quai Branly – Jacques Chirac, Paris
Photo: Musée du Quai Branly – Jacques Chirac

Here’s an Inca peasant, displaying fascinating features, wearing his adorable chocolate-caramel striped shirt and flashing an axe on his shoulder.

Portrait Vessel of a Man with a Cleft Lip and Tattoos, Moche, 100 BC–500 AD, Art Institute of Chicago
Photo: Art Institute of Chicago

Tattoos, scarifications, physical defects (such as the missing upper lip) and illness are recurring motifs.

Vessel representing a sacrifice, Moche, 1-800 AD, Museo Larco, Lima, Peru
Photo: Google Arts & Culture

Mountain scenes are believed to be common because this is the place inhabited by guardian spirits, where shamans are initiated, and where human sacrifices sometimes take place.

Vase, Moche, 100-700 AD, British Museum, London
Photo: British Museum

Peruvian ceramics also help puzzle out social hierarchy. This priest is wearing a striking monkey headband of which “a few actual examples have been excavated”, showing that “these depictions are realistic and accurate portrayals”.

Timbale, Huaco-portrait avec turban et cache-cou
Vase representing an erotic scene, Chimu, 1000-1450, Musée du Quai Branly – Jacques Chirac, Paris
Photo: Musée du Quai Branly – Jacques Chirac

And let’s not forget love, in all its shapes and forms, a subject that constantly occupied the inhabitants of the Peruvian coast.

A nail in time

Giaele e Sisara, by Artemisia Gentileschi
Artemisia Gentileschi, Jael and Sisera, 1620, Szepmuveszeti Museum, Budapest
Photo: Wikipedia

Yes, this is a woman hammering a nail in the head of a sleeping man. It is Artemisia Gentileschi’s Jael and Sisera and not only is it a bizarre subject – at least for those who haven’t memorized the Old Testament – but the artist is a woman, which is blatantly uncommon for 1620 when it was painted.

Mind your head

It is a scene drawn from the Book of Judges (IV, 17-24). Sisera, the sleeping nail-ee, was a long-time enemy of the Israelites. After having lost a battle he fled the scene, seeking refuge in the house of Jael, the nail-er. She opened her tent to him, offered him milk, he fell asleep so she killed him and thus revenged her people.

Just like Artemisia’s Judith beheading Holofernes, also inspired by the Old Testament, the painting displays a strong woman carrying out rightful revenge after careful plotting. Furthermore, they both end in severe injuries to the head.

Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Beheading Holofernes, 1614-1620, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
Notice the dramatic use of the light inspired by Caravaggio.
Photo: Wikipedia

Girl power

Artemisia Gentileschi was an Italian painter who worked for some of the most influential people of her time, even if social and institutional structures were not working in women’s favor. Unfortunately, the assault she suffered when she was young (she was raped by her teacher and had to go through a gruesome trial to prove her … innocence) has served as a pretext for a distorting over-interpretation of her work.

Johan Joseph Zoffany, The Academicians of the Royal Academy, 1771-1772, Royal Collection Trust
Photo: www.royalcollection.org.uk

But to end on a happy note, here’s a painting showing the Academicians of the Royal (British) Academy in 1771-1772. It reminds us that only 150 years after Artemisia’s painting two women, Angelica Kauffmann and Mary Moser, were founding members of this select institution. The only twist is that they show up as portraits on the wall, since, among other reasons, a respectable woman couldn’t appear in the company of naked male models.

Who deserves a statue?

Probably nobody. And besides, for some scholars, public monuments are obsolete symbols of society’s fixation on death. However, considering the recent Confederate statues coming down in the US, anyone can start reflecting on the choice of statues inhabiting their environment, and then drift into a whirlpool of questions about values and the sense of belonging.

Back then

Do you know how many statues were on the streets of Paris around 1870? Not as many as you might think, since there were only NINE ! Those considered statue-worthy at the time were:

  • (unsurprisingly) former kings: Philip Augustus and Saint-Louis, place de la Nation; Henry IV on the pont Neuf; Louis XIII, place des Vosges; Louis XIV, place des Victoires
  • Napoleon I, on top the Vendôme Column
  • Molière on rue Richelieu
  • Ney on avenue de l’Observatoire
  • Moncey, place Clichy

Out of fashion

All of these statues still exist today, but some of them had to be rebuilt as they went in and out of fashion. Poor Napoleon was put up the Vendôme column in 1810, meted in 1818, rebuilt in 1833, he went down again together with the column in 1871, and then he finally went up again in 1875.

The ruins of the column after the Paris Commune in 1871

Photo : Musée Carnavalet

Monumental failure

As a visit to the Museum of Communism in Prague would show you, in 1945, the Czech decided to build a monument dedicated to Stalin. They went for a 30-meter high statue and because of its scale, the construction was unveiled TEN years later, after Stalin’s death, and just a couple of months before Khrushchev’s denunciation of his entire regime. The monument thus stood as an embarrassing reminder of darker ages, until finally, in 1962, they decided to blow it up.

225. Muzeul Comunismului 5Photo : taken inside the Museum of Comunism in Prague